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Context: what preceeded the advisory referendum about the association treaty on April 6th 2016?

  • for a chronological order of events, read from bottom to top;
  • Italic lines are quotes;
  • Other texts are interpretations of referred sources.

2016 February

The campaign subsidy proceedings are basically a mess.

The American embassy in the Netherlands has invited journalists for a press-trip to Ukraïne.

The minister of economics in Ukraïne leaves due to corruption in Ukraïne. The International Monetary Fund has issued warnings on corruption to Ukraïne, "in strong language".

2016 January

The association agreement between Ukraïne and the EU goes into effect. This impacts the free trade zone that was in effect since 2011 between Russia (among others) and Ukraïne: “Member states of the Eurasian Economic Union held consultations on December 22nd 2015 to discuss the implications of the agreement concerning the possible duty-free transit of EU goods via Ukraïne, into EEU.”.. “Russia signed a decree in mid-December 2015 suspending its CIS Free Trade Agreement with respect to Ukraine from January 1st 2016”. “the Ukrainian Government responded by passing trade restrictions on Russia, with effect from 2 January 2016”. “Agreements between Ukraine and other EEU states within the free trade area remain in effect”.

The CIA investigates the eledged financing by Russia of the Dutch referendum and billionaire George Soros supports the YES campaign of for the referendum. Soros made a statement in 2015 that he intended to invest a billion dollar in Ukraïne. George Soros is also known as the man 'who broke the bank of England' when he made a billion dollar by speculating against the British pound in 1992. China warned Soros in January not to speculate against the Chinese currency, like he did with the British pound.

2015 December

Ukraïne partially defaults on a debt to russia of 3 billion dollars. Russia does not accept such default, under international law. In 2014 Ukraïne suffered an inflation rate of 12,1%, unemployment of 9,3%, deficit of -4,5% and a state debt in % of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP, all money made in a country in a year) of 71,2%. A state-debt higher than 60% is, according to the Maatricht treaty (the treaty of the EU) considered to be unsustainable long term. In comparison, The Netherlands in 2014 had 68,8%, Greece had 177,1%, Russia in 2014 had 17,9% (no type-o; it says 17 point 9 percent). The United States in 2014 had a state debt of over 2014% over GDP.

2015 November

Poroshenko, the president elect of Ukraïne in 2014, makes a press conference statement with Dutch prime minister Rutte present, that the association treaty will move forward regardless the outcome of the Dutch referendum. In January 2016 this statement is confirmed, which leads to questions in Dutch parliament.

2015 October

The International Monetary Fund (IMF) changes its rules, a selective default of Ukraïne on her state debt to Russia appears to now be made possible. The changed rules allow the IMF to selectively support Ukraine in refinancing its state debt with new debts; “Prevents Fund lending to countries if they owe unresolved arrears to official bilateral creditors, unless the arrears are covered by a Paris Club agreement or the creditor consents to the Fund providing financing”. The 'Club of Paris' is the mechanism of financiers that goes into effect when a country no longer fulfills its obligations on servicing their debt.

2015 October

The ministry of the interior in the Netherlands will only spend half the budget of that of a regular vote for this referendum, some municipalities will open less voting stations as a result of this. 'Kieskompas' polled that this will have a negative effect on the number of people that will vote and might impair the validity of the referendum. It's up to towns themselves to decide how many voting locations they will open with the provided budget.

2015 Augustus

A group of creditors comes to an agreements about a partial write-off of Ukraïne state debt. Creditor nation Russia is asked to participate in the write off, but refuses.

2015 July

The Netherlands passes the association agreement with accompanying trade agreement with Ukraïne, Moldavia and Georgia into law. These parties voted in favour; CDA, de ChristenUnie, SGP, VVD, Houwers, Klein, group Kuzu/Öztürk, 50PLUS, Van Vliet, D66, GroenLinks and PvdA. Against were; SP, PVV, PvdD. Because a week earlier the advisory referendum law went into effect, the initiative was thus taken to demand for a referendum about the 'association law with Ukraïne' and call for a vote on the law in the Netherlands. By law 300.000 signatures were required, 427.393 were collected.

2015 February

To avoid bankrupcy Ukraine is granted a four year financial aid packet (loans) with a value of 40 billion dollar - over 35 billion euro. The International Monetary Fund (IMF) backs 17,5 billion of the loan.

The rest is from other sources - including the European Union, paying 1,8 billion dollar. As announced by chair to the IMF, Christine Lagarde, on a press conference.

2014 November

The 'Nederlandsche Bank'(Dutch central bank) announced that is had retreived 122 tonnes of the physical Dutch gold stash from the United States to Netherlands. The records of gold kept by the Federal Reserve bank in the US 'misses' (as becomes only later apparant) approximately 30 tonnes of gold. Put differently; in 2014 30 more tonnes were retreived from the NY Fed than they had exported. In 2015 this is 'corrected'. 30 tonnes of gold appeared 'from somewhere' in 2014, other than the Federal Reserve vaults.

Speculation about gold repatriation by the Netherlands and Germany in 2014 in relation to the MH17 investigation;
Speculation about where those 30 tonnes mighnt have come from in 2014; RE

2014 August

EU invests billions into Ukraïne. “a financing agreement on EU budget support to Ukraine’s regional policy worth EUR 55 million.” This financial supports continues into the billions as stated in the 'EU financial and technical assistance for Ukraine' program

2014 July

MH17 - MH17 is surrounded by various matters that will influence perception of all parties involved, also in the referendum. A summary of available confirmed information however (or lack there off) would be a summary of speculation, and has therefor no substantial part in this historical timeline.

2014 October

Parliamentary elections Ukraïne

2014 May

Presidential elections Ukraïne; won by Porosjenko. He subsequently calls for new parlaimentary elections. Due to the earlier separation by the Crimea region (after referendum/confiscation by Russia) and the subsequent conflict in eastern Ukraïne (that also might have wanted to sever being part of Ukraine), those regions did not take part in the vote. 'It was estimated by the democratic watchdog OPORA that 4.6 million Ukrainians will be unable to vote – 1.8 million in Crimea and the city of Sevastopol, 1.6 million in Donetsk Oblast and 1.2 million in Luhansk Oblast'. Ukraïne has approx. 45 million people; over 10% was unable to vote.

2014 April

Hunter Biden (son of USA vice president son Joe Biden) is added to, and becomes the chairman of, the board of Ukraïns largest oilcompany

2014 March

33 tonnes of physical Ukraïne gold is (according to unconfirmed reports) secretly taken away out of Ukraïne. These rumours became facts later when it was confirmed the gold was actually no longer in Ukraine.

2014 March

The Crimeacrisis and conflict in eastern Ukraïne: in reaction to the government change in Ukraïne Crimea (a Russian oriented peninsula) separates from Ukraïne through a referendum/Russia takes over Government in Crimea without bloodshed and later annexes it. Crimea was part of similar conflicts in the past, after which it was part of Russia until 1954 (in 1954 Rusland handed it over to Ukraïne). In eastern Ukraïne an armed conflict emerges between Ukraïne and parties that also want to separate. In the treaty of Minsk a year later some form of cease fire was agreed upon. In that conflict region flight MH17 is shot down a few months later.

2014 March/June

The association treaty with the EU that got rejected half a year prior is now signed into law by the Jatsenjoek interim government. “The EU-Ukraine Association Agreement (AA) replaced the EU-Ukraine Partnership and Cooperation Agreement as the legal basis and framework for EU-Ukraine relations. The AA includes provisions for a Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Area (DCFTA)”

European Commissioner for Enlargement and European Neighbourhood Policy, Stefan Füle, makes this public statement about Ukraïne entering the EU: “If we want to seriously change that part of Eastern Europe, which has been affected by the recent events, we have to use the most powerful policy tool that the EU has – this is enlargement. It has an unprecedented and effective stabilizing capacity,”

2014 February

The previous constitution of before the revolution of 2004 is reinstated, after president Janoekovytsj fled te country. After riots and what appeared a coup or power grab, ruling power was taken over by the Jatsenjoek government. This is an interim government built upon the outcome of the parliamentary elections of 2012. Remarkably though is it is now being led by the non-elected prime minister, banker Arseni Jatsenjoek, and that several ministries are held by neonazi Svoboda party members.

Chairman of the European council, Herman van Rompuy makes the following statement on a congress in Munich, about the place of Ukraïne in the EU; “the future of Ukraïne belongs with the European Union”.

Minister of foreign affairs or Russia, Sergej Lavrov, makes these comments on the same congress: what does the encouragement of violent streetprotests have to do with promoting democracy? “Why do we not hear a condemnation of the occupation of government buildings? Of the violence agaist police and the antisemitic or neonazist language?”.

2013 December

'Assistant Secretary of State' of the United States Victoria Nuland, on an event sponsored by the American oil company Chevron, makes the following statement; We've invested 5 billion dollar on behalf of the Ukraïne EU integration and a EU centric regime. Victoria Nuland would later (January 27th) make her 'Fuck the EU' statement in a conversation with the ambassador of the United States, about the installation of an interim government in Ukraïne. It went into how the American government could persuade United Nations secretary-general Ban Ki-moon to sent Dutch diplomat Robert Serry to Ukraïne as his special envoy. She wanted to enable coorperation between Janoekovytsj and the opposition, by using this diplomat.

2013 November

Former Ukraïne president Janoekovytsj broke off the procedures in Vilnius that were intended to lead to the signing of the association treaty with trade agreement that had been negotiated since 2007, and that would be a successor to the 'European Neighbourhood Policy'. In Vilnius however association treaties would be signed (incl. the trade deal DCFTA) with Moldova and Georgia: '.. recently concluded negotiations for a Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Area (DCFTA) with Moldova, Armenia [in July 2013] and Georgia. The DCFTAs are part of the Association Agreements with these three countries. The official initialing of the Association Agreements with Moldova and Georgia took place during the Eastern Partnership Summit on November 29th 2013 in Vilnius.“ “One week before the 3rd Eastern Partnership Summit in Vilnius on 28th and 29th November 2013 Ukraine suspended the preparation of an Association Agreement under negotiation since 2007. The argument put forward was that Ukraine wanted to prepare an “equal” exchange with the Union and “revive economic negotiations” with Russia. In fact Russia, which had showed its concern about this agreement since the summer of 2013, had achieved its aim: of impeding a rapprochement process with the European Union deemed incompatible with Ukraine's membership of the Customs Union.”

2011 October

A free trade agreement of sorts is being signed into law between Russia, Ukraïne and six other countries; the Commonwealth of Independent States Free Trade Area (CISFTA).

2009 July

The Eastern Partnerschap - a collaboration agreement between the European Union and six former Sovjetrepublics in Eastern Europe and Kaukasus; Armenië, Azerbeidzjan, Georgia, Moldova, Ukraïne and white-Rusland. The Eastern Partnership was instituted on may seventh 2009 in Prague and intends to improve political and economic reletions between signing countries. For Europe, this treaty would also aim to provide more stability and security on its eastern borders. The Eastern partnership is part of the European Neighbourhood policy. Russia would not participate, as per its statement; “Russia is a large self-sufficient country with its own views on European and Euro-Atlantic integration. In contrast to some smaller Eastern European or South Caucasus countries striving for EU-membership Russia is neither a subject nor an object of the European Neighbourhood Policy.”

2007 - November 2013

2005 June

A referendum about the treaty that would institute the constitution of Europe was to be held in at least ten countries in the European Union. After a France and Dutch majority NO vote, most referendums elsewhere got postponed. In Tsjechie it would even be cancelled. As the treaty needed ratification by all 25 member states, it could not move forward. It would later be enacted anyway through the Lisboa treaty.

A majority of Dutch voters on june 1st says NO to the European constitution in the first ever national referendum held in the Netherlands. The cabinet then retracted the proposed law that was intended to lead to the approval of said constitution.

The question asked of the Dutch was: Are you in favour of, or against the Netherlands agreeing to the treaty that institutes the constitution of Europe?

The European constitution that got rejected in 2005 got replaced by the 'Treaty of Lisboa'. This (we vote NO, but they do it anyway) in 2005 gives an extra meaning to some with the second referendum in 2016. All the more so since the European Union on january 2016 already went ahead and put the association treaty into effect regardless the Dutch referendum.


“The European Neighbourhood Action Plan on Ukraine was launched in 2005. It is intended to set out political and economic priorities for action by the country. It provides for a benchmarked roadmap in bringing about needed reforms and fulfillment of these priorities is meant to bring Ukraine closer to the European Union”


'Orange revolution' in Ukraïne and the subsequent new constitution, after elections won by Janoekovitsj. The economic situation of the country had deteriorated sharply in the nineties. Ukrains population declined from 52 to 48 million and the GDP in 1998 had dropped to 40% it had been in 1990. The Ukraïnian population followed Joesjtsjenko's [loosing candidate] call not to accept the outcome, which led to a massive political crisis, that would grow into an uprising of sorts. A civil war or a spril-up of the country could even be the outcome. Some threatened to try and get East Ukraïne to join Russia. Joesjtsjenko was not very popular in the eastern parts. He's regarded as one of the leading people behind the 'IMF-reforms of 1994', during whick time prices of goods and services rose sharply (electricity up 600%, public transportation up 900%), purchasing power declines with 75%. The import of western goods rose sharply which caused a decline in demand for local produced goods. Many local companies and government led services went out of business. Large parts of the industrialized production facilities were closed down. Eastern Ukraïne is strong on that industry and got hit hard. *

1998 March - 2008

Partnership- and collaboration treaty EU-Ukraine: Ever since the nineties the European Union (EU) made ten comparable Partnership- and collaboration agreements (PCA) with Russia and the new independent states in Eastern Ukraine, southern Kaukasus and central Asia: Armenia, Azerbeidzjan, Georgia, Kazachstan, Kirgizië, Moldova, Ukraïne, Oezbekistan and Tadzjikistan.


“EU-Ukraine relations were launched in 1991, just two weeks after Ukraine gained independence. Due to its contractual form of relations with the EU, Ukraine was defined as a part of the so called “third basket” of the European countries that have relations with the EU. The “third basket” is composed by the countries of the former Soviet Union which only have trade agreements that the EU has established with all third trade partners without any right to become a member of the EU. “First basket” are the countries that have associated membership in the EU and have “European Agreements” with the right to join the EU, while “second basket” are the countries of “Stabilization and Association Agreement” from western Balkans, whose right to join the EU is also acknowledged.”

1991 December

Russia, Ukraïne and Belarus started/founded, after 'the Sovjetunion era', a Russian oriented commonwealth (CIS, or SNG). A few weeks later there were twelve participating countries. Except for Estland, Letland en Lithowania; they instead joined NATO and EU.

“The Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS, of SNG); also called the Russian Commonwealth) is a regional organisation formed during the breakup of the Soviet Union, whose participating countries are some former Soviet Republics.” “The CIS is a loose association of states”… “in the realm of trade, finance, lawmaking, and security. It has also promoted cooperation on cross-border crime prevention”.

1991 Augustus

Ukraïne claimed indenpendence on august 24th 1991, after a conservative power grab in the Sovjet-Union had failed. There was a referendum for independence in august, a few weeks later the Sovjet-Union seaced to exist.


With the fall of the Berlin wall the former east-block countries (among them Ukraine) fell apart. Up until then the were part of the 'Warschaupact' of which also present day Russia was member. According to a poll in 2013, in the the still united Ukraine; 56% regretted the fall of the Sovjet-Union and a mere 23% though it was good riddance.Wikipedia got this quote from RT (Russia Today), who in turn refered to an investigation by the US based Gallup organization.


The Maastricht Treaty in 1993 layed the foundation of present day European Union. The last change to its constitutional basis was in 2009 with the (in 2007 signed) Treaty of Lisboa.“


The founding of the predecessor of the European Union by Belgium, Germany, France, Italy, Luxembourg and the Netherlands


The start of the Warschaupact took place, after wester Germany joined NATO in 1949 NATO.

— note; many of the hyperlinks on this page are still to Dutch source materials, as they got translated from Dutch. We will continue to work on translating these pages to proper English and to better reference materials in the coming weeks leading up to the referendum.

archief/raadgevend_referendum_oekraine_2016/englishcontext.txt · Laatst gewijzigd: 2017/09/11 22:31 door KapiteinG