Om te laten zien dat het Partijprogramma van de Piratenpartij geen gebakken lucht is wordt geprobeerd om dit waar mogelijk te verankeren in wetenschappelijke gegevens. Deze studies zijn hier per kopje van het partijprogramma gesorteerd in afwachting van integratie in het definitieve Partijprogramma voor de Tweede Kamerverkiezingen van 2012. Het zijn stuk voor stuk zeer actuele publicaties, zeker niet ouder dan de afgelopen 15 jaar. Het zijn deels academische boeken en artikelen, en deels algemeen gepubliceerde vakbladen.
Omdat deze wetenschappelijke verankering in het tijdspanne van enkele dagen is opgesteld valt over de kwaliteit nog veel te betwisten. Waar mogelijk heb ik een rudimentaire kwaliteitscontrole verricht, dat wil zeggen dat ik er van overtuigd ben dat deze publicaties (tenzij anders aangegeven) wetenschappelijk van aard zijn en de standaard en fundamentele kwaliteitseisen volgt die hier mee samen hangen. Op een meer inhoudelijk niveau blijft het echter giswerk. Voor zover de tijd en mijn capaciteiten het toelieten heb ik geprobeerd om een eerste afbakening te maken, maar dit staat natuurlijk nog mijlenver van de keiharde garanties die eigenlijk voor een partijprogramma vereist zijn. Ik pleit hierbij dan ook zeer sterk voor een werkgroep objectieve informatie, die nadat de verkiezingen achter de rug zijn een eerste start zou kunnen maken met het daadwerkelijk in kaart brengen van de wetenschappelijke literatuur omtrent de voor ons relevante thema's. Desondanks geloof ik heilig dat de hier vermelde publicaties voor het overgrote deel zeer zeker een plaats in het partijprogramma verdienen.
Omdat het onmogelijk is om alle bronnen (zowel op papier als online) te controleren heb ik getracht een format te hanteren die direct laat zien hoeveel inzicht ik praktisch heb kunnen hebben in een bron, en dus welke mate van betrouwbaarheid ik toe kan kennen. Omdat dit voor anderen misschien niet direct duidelijk is leg ik deze hier verder uit.
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Nu vormt dit format in veel gevallen het ideaal, er zijn vele publicaties die hier simpelweg niet aan voldoen. Zoals eerder gezegd vermelden veel vakbladen geen auteur(s), en vakbladen hebben vaak ook geen online archief zoals wetenschappelijke publicaties dat vaak wel hebben. Dit maakt het vrijwel onmogelijk om de tekst in te zien. Een ander groot probleem is het feit dat veel artikelen achter een abonement schuilgaan. Ikzelf heb hier gelukkig toegang tot omdat ik aan de Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen studeer, maar ik begrijp dat dit voor andere waarschijnlijk lastiger ligt. Veel url's zullen voor anderen daarom niet werken omdat deze een afgeschermde universiteitsproxy gebruiken. Ik heb waar mogelijk geprobeerd om deze er tussen uit te halen, maar meestal is dit onmogelijk. Mocht je dus een PDF van een artikel willen dan is je beste kans om het even aan mij door te geven, dan kan ik het van de websites afhalen en doorsturen. Artikelen zonder url bestaan alleen op papier in de universiteiten. Bij extreem hoge nood kan ik de publicaties op de Radboud Universiteit dus wel ophalen en kopiëren, maar dit moet dan wel echt de moeite en kosten van het opzoeken en kopiëren waard zijn.
Abstract: The relationship between citizens and political institutions in democratic systems all over the world seems to be experiencing a time of uncertainty: falling numbers of voters, an increase in populist discourses and parties, rising public protest demanding reforms of political systems and the new manifestations of organisations from civil society being set up to protect and fight for specific rights. Establishing the meaning of citizenship has occupied a great deal of space and effort among theorists who have defined the ideal character linked to the model of a good citizen, which is useful and valid for improving relations between society and the State. However, it is less common to find viewpoints approaching the issue of the meaning of citizenship by directly asking citizens themselves. This article deals with interpretations linked to the notion of citizenship and democracy, based on an empirical analysis, with a research developed largely in the Netherlands, examining data on Dutch citizens' ideals. The data is presented with the aim of seeking uncertainties and evidences that could help for understanding what appears to be a greater distancing between society and the State.
With the aim of achieving this objective, this article first presents a brief analysis of the ideals associated with the notion of good citizenship in the literature. Secondly, it introduces some previous cross-national research with closed-ended questions to get grip on the meanings of good citizenship of ordinary citizens in different contexts. Thirdly, having introduced these two issues, an approach is made to the interpretation of the “good citizen” according to open questions to Dutch citizens in surveys carried out by the Netherlands Institute for Social Research (SCP), where one of the authors of this article carries out research work. Later, in a new point, interest is focused on a study of the attitudes and expectations of Dutch citizens with regard to democratic politics, data also collected via the SCP.
Analysis of this data will show that, although Dutch citizens show clear acceptance of the democratic system as the best political system, they do not consider politics as something that is relevant. Moreover, they even consider it as rather tiresome and annoying. Citizens adopt a negative attitude towards politics and a high level of mistrust towards their political representatives. These results lead us to introduce some proposals on possible policies in the final part of the paper. These suggestions are not intended to be more than brief notes focusing on three key aspects: the incorporation of the principle of transparency, the introduction of mechanisms for direct participation by citizens and the recognition of the potential of civil society. They are proposals aimed at reducing the distancing between society and the State, believed to be useful for the Netherlands as well as for other possible contexts affected by similar symptoms.
Abstract: Analyseert de overgang op gemeenteniveau van een eenzijdige regentenpolitiek waarbij beleid door de overheid werd opgelegd naar een experimenteel ideaal van “deliberatieve democratie”. Het ontkent niet dat deze vorm van “directe democratie” mogelijkheden biedt om het hedendaags politiek tekort op te lossen, maar voorziet hier in diens huidige vorm een groot aantal haken en ogen aan. Vervolgens doet het een aantal aanbevelingen om de situatie te verbeteren en gaat het in op de wenselijkheid van volledige burgerparticipatie.
Abstract: realiseert zich dat democratie een meervoudig verschijnsel is, maar in de prakijk maar zelden als zodanig wordt opgepikt. Het stelt een aantal modellen op om deze meervoudigheid in te vangen en acht het noodzakelijk dat een mengeling van deze modellen cruciaal is om een gezonde en vitale democratie te ontwikkelen en te behouden, ook in een 'gevestigde democratie' als in Nederland.
Abstract: In this study, we investigate which factors moderate the agenda-setting influence of the mass media on the Belgian parliament during the period 1993-2000. Based on elaborate codings of the media, parliamentary questions and interpellations, party manifestos, government agreements and ministerial meetings, we employ a multi-level time-series model. The results indicate that especially party characteristics (party size, incumbent or opposition party, issue ownership) and the government agenda influence the dependency of parliament on media coverage. Furthermore, we find an increase in the extent of media influence through time, suggesting an increasing presence of 'media logic' in the behaviour of Belgian MPs. Irrespective of all those contingent factors, the mass media determine the Belgian parliamentary agenda to a considerable degree.
Abstract: Claims regarding the power of the mass media in contemporary politics are much more frequent than research actually analysing the influence of mass media on politics. Building upon the notion of issue ownership, this article argues that the capacity of the mass media to influence the respective agendas of political parties is conditioned upon the interests of the political parties. Media attention to an issue generates attention from political parties when the issue is one that political parties have an interest in politicizing in the first place. The argument of the article is supported in a time-series study of mass media influence on the opposition parties' agenda in Denmark over a twenty-year period.
Abstract: Een bundel met een compleet overzicht van al het sociologische onderzoek over de relatie tussen politiek en media. Het heeft een brede selectie aan auteurs die ingaan op het ontstaan van nieuws, de relatie tussen reporters en politici, het gebruik van de media in campagnes en de invloed van de media op de publieke opinie.
Abstract: This introduction, to an issue on privacy as a social issue and behavioral concept, discusses what privacy is, by examining definitions and theories of privacy, and what privacy does, by reviewing the benefits of obtaining privacy and the costs of failing to achieve and of losing privacy. It provides a possible bridge between social psychological and social issues approaches to privacy and examines privacy as a social issue for Americans as citizens, health-care recipients, consumers, and employees. It then briefly explores behavioral aspects of privacy, including indicators of privacy's importance and the generally overlooked status of privacy in psychology.
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to provide a succinct (3,000 word) explanation of the considerations that lead me to define it that way. Het gaat in op de functie van privacy als menselijk recht, de sociale behoefte hieraan en de verankering in het juridisch systeem. Andere artikelen van deze auteur mogelijk ook erg interessant.
Abstract: Privacy is one of the most important concepts of our time, yet it is also one of the most elusive. As rapidly changing technology makes information increasingly available, scholars, activists, and policymakers have struggled to define privacy, with many conceding that the task is virtually impossible.
In UNDERSTANDING PRIVACY (Harvard University Press, May 2008), Professor Daniel J. Solove offers a comprehensive overview of the difficulties involved in discussions of privacy and ultimately provides a provocative resolution. He argues that no single definition can be workable, but rather that there are multiple forms of privacy, related to one another by family resemblances. His theory bridges cultural differences and addresses historical changes in views on privacy.
Drawing on a broad array of interdisciplinary sources, Solove sets forth a framework for understanding privacy that provides clear, practical guidance for engaging with relevant issues, such as surveillance, data mining, identity theft, state involvement in reproductive and marital decisions, and other pressing contemporary matters concerning privacy.
Abstract: Impelled by the development of technologies that facilitate collection, distribution, storage, and manipulation of personal consumer information, privacy has become a “hot” topic for policy makers. Commercial interests seek to maximize and then leverage the value of consumer information, while, at the same time, consumers voice concerns that their rights and ability to control their personal information in the marketplace are being violated. However, despite the complaints, it appears that consumers freely provide personal data. This research explores what we call the “privacy paradox” or the relationship between individuals’ intentions to disclose personal information and their actual personal information disclosure behaviors.
Abstract: This research addresses the tensions that arise between the collection and use of personal information that people provide in the course of most consumer transactions, and privacy. In today's electronic world, the competitive strategies of successful firms increasingly depend on vast amounts of customer data. Ironically, the same information practices that provide value to organizations also raise privacy concerns for individuals. This study hypothesized that organizations can address these privacy concerns and gain business advantage through customer retention by observing procedural fairness: customers will be willing to disclose personal information and have that information subsequently used to create consumer profiles for business use when there are fair procedures in place to protect individual privacy. Because customer relationships are characterized by social distance, customers must depend on strangers to act on their behalf. Procedural fairness serves as an intermediary to build trust when interchangeable organizational agents exercise considerable delegated power on behalf of customers who cannot specify or constrain their behavior. Our hypothesis was supported as we found that when customers are explicitly told that fair information practices are employed, privacy concerns do not distinguish consumers who are willing to be profiled from those who are unwilling to have their personal information used in this way.
Abstract: Government and industry organizations have declared information privacy and security to be major obstacles in the development of consumer-related e-commerce. Risk perceptions regarding Internet privacy and security have been identified as issues for both new and experienced users of Internet technology. This paper explores risk perceptions among consumers of varying levels of Internet experience and how these perceptions relate to online shopping activity. Findings provide evidence of hypothesized relationships among consumers’ levels of Internet experience, the use of alternate remote purchasing methods (such as telephone and mail-order shopping), the perceived risks of online shopping, and online purchasing activity. Implications for online commerce and consumer welfare are discussed.
Weinig literatuur voor beschikbaar… niet geheel onverwacht gezien de (in de Westerse cultuur) universele omarming van burgerrechten.
Abstract: The proper balance between governmental secrecy and open government is at the forefront of contemporary public debate. Citizens have different degrees of interest in and demand for governmental transparency. Using data from a national online survey of more than 1,800 respondents, we develop several indices to measure citizens' demand for transparency at the local level and explore its correlates. We also examine the correlates of citizens' reported requests for information from local government. The data and analysis suggest that there are several dimensions to the public's demand for transparency, including fiscal, safety, and government concerns, and principled openness. Age, political ideology, confidence in government leaders, frequency of contacting government, and especially the perception that there is currently not enough access to government appear to drive the public's demand for transparency, although determinants differ for each dimension. Some, although not all, of these factors also predict citizens' actual requests for government information.
Abstract: In order to hold government accountable for its actions, citizens must know what those actions are. To that end, they must insist that government act openly and transparently to the greatest extent possible. In the Twenty- First Century, this entails making its data available online and easy to access. If government data is made available online in useful and flexible formats, citizens will be able to utilize modern Internet tools to shed light on government activities. Such tools include mashups, which highlight hidden connections between different data sets, and crowdsourcing, which makes light work of sifting through mountains of data by focusing thousands of eyes on a particular set of data.
Today, however, the state of government's online offerings is very sad indeed. Some nominally publicly available information is not online at all, and the data that is online is often not in useful formats. Government should be encouraged to release public information online in a structured, open, and searchable manner. To the extent that government does not modernize, however, we should hope that private third parties build unofficial databases and make these available in a useful form to the public.
Abstract: This paper asks how Internet use, citizen satisfaction with e-government and citizen trust in government are interrelated. Prior research has found that agencies stress information and service provision on the Web (one-way e-government strategy), but have generally ignore applications that would enhance citizen-government interaction (two-way e-government strategy). Based on a review of the literature, we develop hypotheses about how two facets of e-democracy - transparency and interactivity - may affect citizen trust in government. Using data obtained from the Council on Excellence in Government, we apply a two stage multiple equation model. Findings indicate that Internet use is positively associated with transparency satisfaction but negatively associated with interactivity satisfaction, and that both interactivity and transparency are positively associated with citizen trust in government. We conclude that the one-way e-transparency strategy may be insufficient, and that in the future agencies should make and effort to enhance e-interactivity.
Abstract: The advent of digital technology has increasingly stressed copyright's ability to protect adequately creative works. By widely dispersing the ability to make near-perfect copies, digital technology renders copyright's traditional approach of controlling unauthorized copying by direct legal action against the individual copier increasingly anachronistic. Fearing copyright's inability to cope with the resulting risk of widespread private copying, copyright producers requested and Congress enacted the Digital Millennium Copyright Act (“DMCA”). The DMCA prohibits almost entirely the use and distribution of decryption technology that would defeat encryption-based controls placed on digital works, and thereby enables copyright producers to rely on encryption to protect their digital works. In doing so, Congress has re-created a protection scheme nearly identical to the one that the Stationers' Company of London used to maintain its printing monopoly in England more than three hundred years ago. Both protection schemes rely on legal prohibitions that limit access to the technology necessary to reproduce protected works. Yet, given the threat digital technology poses, Congress may have had no choice. With anything less than almost complete prohibition, decryption technology would have inevitably slipped into the marketplace more generally and restored the potential for widespread private copying. Nevertheless, this article identifies two considerations that suggest that Congress has gone too far in enacting the DMCA. First, private copying is unlikely to reduce the revenue and incentives for creative works at the margins and is therefore not a threat to “the progress of Science” Congress is constitutionally constrained to serve. Second, private copying represents a critical form of democratic self-governance - civil disobedience - that allows consumers to determine the proper level of protection directly and thereby avoids the agency-cost flaws of determining copyright's proper scope through our elected representatives. Given these two considerations, the DMCA's prohibitions on the use and distribution of decryption technology may prove not merely unwise, but constitutionally infirm.
Abstract: The advances in networking and multimedia technologies have created opportunities for producers of digital content. However, the ability for anyone to make perfect copies of digital content and the ease by which copies can be distributed facilitate misuse, illegal distribution, plagiarism, misappropriation. Moreover, popular peer-to-peer software are widely used by Internet “pirates” to illegally share digital copyrighted content, thus violating the legal rights of the copyright owners. Known solutions like Digital Rights Management (DRM) systems aim at protecting and enforcing the legal rights associated with the use of digital content distributed on the Internet, but they may also disturb the balance between the information creation and distribution, and give rise to problems concerning with privacy. In fact, “fair use” and privacy are often invoked by web users: the former in order to prevent copyright owners from having the exclusive control over their creations than the copyright law intends, and the latter in order to preserve the ownership and distribution of confidential data. This paper reports on the most important problems tied to the use of DRM systems and, in the light of the current forensic trends, provides a number of suggestions that can be helpful to meet the conflicting interests of web users and content providers.
Abstract: This essay asks: How did we get into the current crisis of copyright law, and how to move beyond it? This crisis developed as proliferating and expanding rights entered into tensions with each other and with exceptions. It has become acute as media progress has brought cultural creations into the internet and the darknet: we now face ever-harder copyright cases. This essay proposes principles to help courts resolve such cases: it bases its proposals on the rationales that it finds common to the laws of copyright and of authors' rights. At the start, to assure that such rights operate coherently, they are so defined, and remedies so articulated, that creators may not interfere with each other as they feed culture. Then, to meet real-world informational needs, rights are limited in time and made subject to exceptions from which end-users can benefit by relying on common sense alone. Further, for the sake of clarity and equity in copyright commerce, transfers are to be construed restrictively, and failures to license are to estop subsequent claims. Finally, overriding principles of privacy, of free expression, and of legality set parameters for enforcing rights. In conclusion, consequences are drawn for changing copyright doctrine and law. Visual examples, referenced online, illustrate the essay.
Abstract: There is a close relationship between the birth and development of copyright law and technological change.Technological change is not only the technological factors and objective conditions for the birth of copyright law,but also an important guarantee for promoting the development and improvement of copyright law.From the angle of law history,firstly,printing transmission technology leads to the birth of copyright law;then,along with the development of copying technology,human society enters into the electric era and net era and copyright law boasts many new characteristics.New technological change results in some new changes of copyright law such as personal copying and so on.Copyright law can adapt to the technological change and improve constantly.
Abstract: Creative Commons - Het gangbare auteursrecht belemmert de creativiteit. Met een nieuw soort licenties streeft de intemationale organisatie Creative Commons ernaar dat zoveel mogelijk creatief werk in het publieke domein terecht komt. Creatief werk bouwt immers voort op wat er al is, zeker in het internettijdperk.
Abstract: More than 2.5 million United States patents have been issued in the last twenty years. While these patents are spread across all industries, a large percentage are concentrated in the information technology (IT) industries, and others in biotechnology. The prevalence of patents in these industries has caused a number of people to worry about an “anticommons” in patent law. Given these problems, it's a wonder companies make products in patent-intensive industries at all.
And yet make products they do. Both my own experience and what limited empirical evidence there is suggest that companies do not seem much deterred by the threat of all this patent litigation from making products.
What's going on here? The answer, I think, is quite simple: both researchers and companies in component industries simply ignore patents. Virtually everyone does it. They do it at all stages of endeavor. From the perspective of an outsider to the patent system, this is a remarkable fact. And yet it may be what prevents the patent system from crushing innovation in component industries like IT. Ignoring patents, then, may be a “workaround” that allows the innovation system to function in the face of overbroad patent protection.
At the same time, ignoring patents is hardly the optimal solution. I suggest some ways we might move towards a compromise - a robust patent market in which inventors could get paid without the problems of holdup and the anticommons.
Abstract: Patent law is crucial to encourage technological innovation. But as the patent system currently stands, diverse industries from pharmaceuticals to software to semiconductors are all governed by the same rules even though they innovate very differently. The result is a crisis in the patent system, where patents calibrated to the needs of prescription drugs wreak havoc on information technologies and vice versa. According to Dan L. Burk and Mark A. Lemley in The Patent Crisis and How the Courts Can Solve It, courts should use the tools the patent system already gives them to treat patents in different industries differently. Industry tailoring is the only way to provide an appropriate level of incentive for each industry. </p><p>Burk and Lemley illustrate the barriers to innovation created by the catch-all standards in the current system. Legal tools already present in the patent statute, they contend, offer a solution—courts can tailor patent law, through interpretations and applications, to suit the needs of various types of businesses. The Patent Crisis and How the Courts Can Solve It will be essential reading for those seeking to understand the nexus of economics, business, and law in the twenty-first century.
Abstract: In recent years, business leaders, policymakers, and inventors have complained to the media and to Congress that today's patent system stifles innovation instead of fostering it. But like the infamous patent on the peanut butter and jelly sandwich, much of the cited evidence about the patent system is pure anecdote–making realistic policy formation difficult. Is the patent system fundamentally broken, or can it be fixed with a few modest reforms? Moving beyond rhetoric, Patent Failure provides the first authoritative and comprehensive look at the economic performance of patents in forty years. James Bessen and Michael Meurer ask whether patents work well as property rights, and, if not, what institutional and legal reforms are necessary to make the patent system more effective.
Patent Failure presents a wide range of empirical evidence from history, law, and economics. The book's findings are stark and conclusive. While patents do provide incentives to invest in research, development, and commercialization, for most businesses today, patents fail to provide predictable property rights. Instead, they produce costly disputes and excessive litigation that outweigh positive incentives. Only in some sectors, such as the pharmaceutical industry, do patents act as advertised, with their benefits outweighing the related costs.
By showing how the patent system has fallen short in providing predictable legal boundaries, Patent Failure serves as a call for change in institutions and laws. There are no simple solutions, but Bessen and Meurer's reform proposals need to be heard. The health and competitiveness of the nation's economy depend on it.
Abstract: Aside from the benefits that trademarks provide society, nothing inherently special about them warrants granting an exclusive in them interest to users. Trademarks benefit society by providing information about and identification of the products that consumers wish to buy. This informational and identificatory role of trademarks is the source of their value and the policy basis for according the first user protection against others’ concurrent use of the same or similar mark. The law should protect the source of a trademark’s value, not other attributes that merely reflect that a trademark has value. The informational and identificatory roles of trademarks can cost-effectively facilitate interbrand competition. Interbrand competition, in turn, maximizes value for consumers. Protection of trademark interests beyond their informational and identificatory roles protects more than their value to consumers. Such broadened protection creates property interests in trademarks that benefit only the first user of the mark at the expense of consumers’ interest in competitive markets. Protecting consumers’ interest in competitive markets creates more value than protecting the naked property interests of trademark users. This Article examines basic assumptions about competitive markets and the positive roles that recognition of exclusive trademark interests plays in promoting interbrand competition in such markets. The Article also examines various existing trademark doctrines and recent amendments to the Lanham Act against these standards.
Abstract: The ever-expanding scope and strength of trademark rights has caused justifiable fears of a threat to free expression. Until now, however, concerned scholars generally focused on perfecting the substance of legal rules that balance free speech against other goals. This effort is misplaced because most cases raising these issues in recent years ended in judicial decisions that favored speech. The real danger arises from the procedural structure of trademark law's various “fair use” doctrines, which generate excessive ambiguity and prolong litigation before ever reaching such positive outcomes. Resulting administrative costs discourage speakers from using trademarks expressively in the first place, creating a classic chilling effect. This Article is the first to analyze these problems with trademark fair use comprehensively and recommend pragmatic reform to address the problems. Instead of adding more bells and whistles to already complex law, we should craft simpler affirmative defenses that reduce uncertainty and allow for quick adjudication.
Abstract: The debate over trademark use has become a hot-button issue in intellectual property (IP) law. In Confusion over Use: Contextualism in Trademark Law, Graeme Dinwoodie and Mark Janis characterize it as a dispute over whether to limit trademark holder rights in a new and unanticipated way. Yet there is another - in our view more historically accurate - way to frame the trademark use debate: the question is whether courts should, absent specific statutory authorization, allow trademark holders to assert a new and unprecedented form of trademark infringement claim. The pop-up and keyword cases involve attempts to impose third-party liability under the guise of direct infringement suits. Dinwoodie and Janis's thorough account notwithstanding, it remains the fact that, before the recent spate of Internet-related cases, no court had ever recognized a trademark claim of the sort that trademark holders are now asserting. Trademark infringement suits have always involved allegations of infringement by parties who use marks in connection with the promotion of their own goods and services. The question raised by the trademark use cases, as we view it, is whether courts should countenance a radical departure from that traditional model without specific instruction from Congress. We think they should not.
In this paper, we explain the origins of trademark use doctrine in traditional limits on the scope of the trademark right and in the distinction between direct and contributory infringement. We also explain why we cannot simply rely on the likelihood of consumer confusion test to solve the problems the trademark use doctrine addresses, and we examine the difficult problem of defining the scope of the trademark use doctrine.
Abstract: This paper dissects the concept and application of transparency goals in the EU. It outlines problems arising out of the security agenda for the concept of transparent democratic EU governance. Viewed through the prism of structural, procedural and socio-psychological lenses, the pursuit of transparency involves challenges to the EU’s authority structures, accountability, accessibility, and attentiveness. A re-conceptualisation of transparency is suggested to improve understanding of how its seemingly indiscriminate advocacy challenges and advances change in EU governance as the EU enlarges.
Abstract: The picture of Brussels-based bureaucrats exercising wide-ranging, arbitrary executive powers with no accountability is one of the favorite images conjured by Eurosceptics across the political spectrum. What truth is there in the image? This book aims to bring the EU's executive powers out of the shadows by mapping the evolution and current form of the EU's various executive actors, their powers, and the mechanisms for holding them accountable. In doing so it provides a rich understanding of the way in which the EU's institutional and legal framework fits within national constitutional presumptions about how power should be controlled and accountability achieved.
Covering both the political executive and the administrative executive at the EU institutional level, the book analyzes their relationship with national executive power, and traces the historical evolution of executive order in Europe from the Peace of Westphalia through classic inter-governmental organizations to the allegedly unique EU framework. The book's analysis covers both the formal legal structure of the Union and the evolution of the EU's living institutions in practice. The picture presented is of a fragmented, cluttered and complex European executive space, resistant to radical constitutional reform and in need of a more nuanced understanding of the different forms of executive power required by different political aims and modes of decision-making.
Abstract: This paper addresses two particular aspects of the much debated democratic deficit in European Union (EU) governance – the absence of a system of party government at the European level, whereby parties in the Parliament lack the capacity to effectively control the governing bodies of the EU, and the apparent failings in the capacity of parties at the European level to represent the will of the citizens of Europe. We question the self-evidence of the recommendation that the Union adapt to conventional party government models at the national level and argue that since many of the conditions facilitating the effective fusion of the functions of representation and of control of the government no longer pertain, it may actually prove unwise to seek to replicate this process at the European level. We go on to take issue with the traditional view that the European process of political representation fails mainly because political parties do not compete on so-called European issues. Despite a poor process of political representation at the European level, European elections and political parties appear to serve quite effectively as instruments of political representation. We conclude by suggesting that the effectiveness of political representation at the European level owes much to the absence of party government, such that, paradoxically, one of the most commonly cited aspects of the democratic deficit thereby appears to alleviate the other.
Abstract: How does the EU resolve controversy when making laws that affect citizens? How has the EU been affected by the recent enlargements that brought its membership to a diverse group of twenty-seven countries? This book answers these questions with analyses of the EU’s legislative system that include the roles played by the European Commission, European Parliament and member states’ national governments in the Council of Ministers. The book examines more than 300 controversial issues in the EU from the past decade and describes many cases of controversial decision-making as well as rigorous comparative analyses. The analyses test competing expectations regarding key aspects of the political system, including the policy demands made by different institutions and member states, the distributions of power among the institutions and member states, and the contents of decision outcomes. These analyses are also highly relevant to the EU’s democratic deficit and various reform proposals.
Abstract: A contradictory creation indeed, the European Union has most of the institutions of a modern democracy, yet it does not function as one. Moreover, its growing scope of activity and supranational decision making processes are undermining the legitimacy of democracy in its member states. Much has been written about this double “democratic deficit,” but surprisingly little thought has been given to what to do about it—short of drafting and ratifying a new federal constitution.
In this provocative book, Philippe C. Schmitter explores both the possibility and the desirability of democratizing the EU. He argues that as a “non-state” and a “non nation” it will have to invent new forms of citizenship, representation, and decisionmaking if it is ever to democratize itself. The author also contends that the timing and political context work against a full-scale constitutionalization of the process. He proposes a number of modest (and some less modest) reforms that could improve the situation in the near future and eventually lead to a genuine Euro-democracy.
Aiming to capture the dominant character of the relationship between democracy and European integration, this book offers an account of alternative approaches to the origins, nature and development of the “democratic deficit” of the European Union. Its central thesis is that such a “deficit” stems as much from the inadequacy of existing institutional arrangements to meet the requirements of democratic shared-rule as it does from the absence of a traditional demos, capable of directing its democratic claims to and via the central institutions. Such an analysis addresses the questions not only of who governs, but also of who is governed, suggesting that democracy cannot exist without a demos conscious of its political identity. The author maintains that the more the Union approximates to a politically organized “union of peoples”, the greater the possibilities for developing democracy within its structures. Thus, what is absolutely essential for the democratization of the Union is the development of a “sense of community” among its component state/citizen parts. It is also suggested that the present Union approximates to a new type of collective entity, based on the properties of consensus elite government. The crucial question is whether the emerging European polity can move beyond executive dominance and transform itself from democracies to democracy.
In this paper, focusing on participatory public decision making processes, I propose a framework for group support systems and discuss related research issues. As a case illustrating the feasibility of participatory public decision making, I present the participatory budgeting experience in Porto Alegre, Brazil. The case is analyzed based on the proposed framework.
This study of municipal e-participation in Norway, comprising local politicians as well as citizens, explores the impact of municipal size on online participation. First, the analyses show that the conventional predictors of offline participation also influence online participation, but the Internet encourages more activity among young people. Second, the same digital divides are generally found within the local political elite as among the citizens. Municipal size is, however, an exception. In the case of the local politicians, higher online participation rates are found in populous municipalities. This territorial digital divide is absent among the citizens. The findings indicate that the relatively high level of traditional participation in small municipalities also promote e-participation.
Research originally suggested that new technologies, particularly the Internet, provided a useful mechanism for engaging young people – an otherwise largely disenfranchised group. Subsequent to the evaluation of a number of pioneering projects in this field it has become apparent that merely providing online tools is not sufficient to engage young people democratically. In order to begin to resolve some of the underlying issues a number of interviews with youth consultation coordinators in Scotland have been conducted and youth consultation best practice documents have been researched. This has resulted in the development of four high-level stages, which situate online youth dialogues in a much broader, supporting scheme. Evaluation research is planned through the development and field-testing of further youth consultations. Our work will continue to research ways of developing online youth consultation tools that are both used and useful. At present, as this paper details, it appears that the only way this will occur is if ‘traditional’ offline techniques are implemented to help alter a cultural view of young people in opposition to what it means to be a citizen.
Abstract: Democracy is based on freedom of voting but also on meaningful discussions about matters that are put to the vote or about people who wish to be elected. E-democracy cannot therefore be reduced to e-voting. It should also include Internet-based services that facilitate online interaction between voters, candidates and supporters of various opinions. This paper presents a series of interactive tools that can be used to support such a virtual dialogue. A matrix is proposed to categorize these tools. Examples of such tools used in Switzerland are given. The most sophisticated tools and websites recently developed for Swiss elections or referendums are described in some detail. Possible future research on the impact of these tools is outlined.
Abstract: Informatie- en communicatietechnologie (ICT) vormt een steeds groter deel van onze economie. Digitalisering van informatie heeft invloed op de inrichting van de samenleving. Niet ICT in het algemeen, maar ICTontwikkelingen in relatie tot de privacy, vanuit oogpunt van burger en overheid, worden in dit advies bestudeerd. De Raad wil een aanzet geven de vragen hoe de overheid moet omgaan met ICT-ontwikkelingen in relatie tot privacy en wie verantwoordelijk is voor bescherming van de privacy, te beantwoorden. Betekent meer handelingsvermogen van de overheid door gebruik van ICT vanzelf minder privacy, of zijn er ook mogelijkheden om, door een andere wijze van omgaan met persoonsgegevens, meer handelingsvermogen te realiseren met evenveel of zelfs meer privacy? Als norm wordt vooropgesteld dat privacy een recht van burgers is. Informatievrijheid betekent dat anderen geen informatie over ons kunnen inwinnen zonder onze toestemming of zonder dat daar een verplichting toe bestaat, en dat de informatiestroom die onszelf betreft ook door onszelf wordt beheerd. Burgers maken zich, ondanks dat privacy geen geïnstitutionaliseerd belang is, wel degelijk zorgen over hun privacy. Dit komt tot uiting in specifieke relaties tussen overheid en burger, en bedrijf en consument. Als voorbeelden van ‘privacygevoelige’ terreinen gelden: de gezondheidszorg, de sociale zekerheid, internet en de handhaving van de openbare orde en veiligheid. Burgers houden er individuele meningen op na over wat privacyschending is en zijn tegelijkertijd bij verschillende gevallen bereid hun gegevens af te staan.
De Raad bestudeert de gevolgen van ICT-ontwikkelingen in de verzorgingsstaat en in de rechtsstaat. Door deze concepten te gebruiken en de verschillende taken van de overheid te onderscheiden, kan een goed beeld van overheid en burger in de informatiesamenleving worden gevormd. De relatie tussen overheid en burger in de verzorgingsstaat en ‘ICT en privacy’ betreft de wisselwerking tussen het toepassen van ICT bij het uitvoeren en verbeteren van de overheidsdienstverlening en de bescherming van de persoonlijke levenssfeer van de burgers. Vooropgesteld staat volgens de Raad de algemene norm van informatievrijheid van de burgers. Daarom dient gebruik van persoonsgegevens aan betrokken burgers te worden gevraagd. De Raad erkent hierbij dat in sommige gevallen – zoals bij belastingen – het gebruik van persoonsgegevens eenvoudigweg een verplichting betreft. Specifieke criteria, ofwel de voorwaarden waaraan gegevensverwerking volgens burgers moet voldoen, zijn: duidelijkheid, doelbinding, transparantie en voorspelbaarheid. De overeenkomst tussen ‘wat burgers willen’ en de vereisten voor gegevensverwerking in het Wetsvoorstel over de Bescherming van Persoonsgegevens (WBP) komen nauw overeen.
Dit lijkt wetenschappelijk geen populair standpunt te zijn. Encryptie wordt veelal geduid als een negatieve methode waarmee overheden burgerrechten sterk inperken. Er is erg veel geschreven wat zich juist tegen encryptie keert.
Abstract: Dit boek gaat in op de gevolgen van de Wet op de identificatieplicht. Het is een samenwerkingsverband van diverse maatschappelijke organisaties. Het boek behandelt de nadelen van de identificatieplicht. Wat zijn de gevolgen hiervan in relatie tot fundamentele grondrechten, voor etnische minderheden en controle op burgers in een democratische samenleving? Het aardige is dat juist veel praktijkvoorbeelden de nadelen van de identificatieplicht illustreren. Een nadeel van het boek is dat het geen evenwichtig beeld geeft van de identificatieplicht als beleidsinstrument. Ontegenzeggelijk zijn daar ook voordelen aan verbonden. Als pamflet is het boek echter zeker geslaagd. Ter toelichting zijn het wetsvoorstel en de toelichting daarop opgenomen.
CBR en OPTA lijken weinig zelf-kritisch te zijn.
Hierbij loop je vast op de tientallen opvattingen over database beveiliging en technische artikelen. Zolang we niet achter één duidelijke opvatting staan is het lastig om dit echt in te dekken.
Abstract: Het communicatielandschap is veranderd sinds iedereen gebruik kan maken van sociale media, want iedereen is nu zowel zender als ontvanger. De auteurs geven een beschrijving van de huidige situatie van het gebruik van sociale media door politici, overheden en burgers. Daarnaast maakt hun onderzoek ook duidelijk dat er heel verschillend tegen sociale media wordt aangekeken. Door de onderbouwing met cijfers, voorbeelden en citaten uit interviews ontstaat een genuanceerd beeld. Het is duidelijk dat de mogelijkheden van sociale media nog niet ten volle worden benut. De auteurs sluiten dan ook af met een aantal adviezen voor wie sociale media gericht wil inzetten. Een naslagwerk voor studenten en mensen die voor werk- of privédoeleinden de mogelijkheden van sociale media beter willen benutten. Met een literatuurlijst.
Abstract: Security is an important issue that must be considered as a fundamental requirement in information systems development, and particularly in database design. Therefore security, as a further quality property of software, must be tackled at all stages of the development. The most extended secure database model is the multilevel model, which permits the classification of information according to its confidentiality, and considers mandatory access control. Nevertheless, the problem is that no database design methodologies that consider security (and therefore secure database models) across the entire life cycle, particularly at the earliest stages currently exist. Therefore it is not possible to design secure databases appropriately. Our aim is to solve this problem by proposing a methodology for the design of secure databases. In addition to this methodology, we have defined some models that allow us to include security information in the database model, and a constraint language to define security constraints. As a result, we can specify a fine-grained classification of the information, defining with a high degree of accuracy which properties each user has to own in order to be able to access each piece of information. The methodology consists of four stages: requirements gathering; database analysis; multilevel relational logical design; and specific logical design. The first three stages define activities to analyze and design a secure database, thus producing a general secure database model. The last stage is made up of activities that adapt the general secure data model to one of the most popular secure database management systems: Oracle9i Label Security. This methodology has been used in a genuine case by the Data Processing Center of Provincial Government. In order to support the methodology, we have implemented an extension of Rational Rose, including and managing security information and constraints in the first stages of the methodology.
Abstract: Database Systems: Design, Implementation, and Management, Eighth Edition, a market-leader for database texts, gives readers a solid foundation in practical database design and implementation. The book provides in-depth coverage of database design, demonstrating that the key to successful database implementation is in proper design of databases to fit within a larger strategic view of the data environment. Updates for the eighth edition include additional Unified Modeling Language coverage, expanded coverage of SQL Server functions, all-new business intelligence coverage, and added coverage of data security. With a strong hands-on component that includes real-world examples and exercises, this book will help students develop database design skills that have valuable and meaningful application in the real world.
Abstract: The vision of ubiquitous computing and ambient intelligence describes a world of technology which is present anywhere, anytime in the form of smart, sensible devices that communicate with each other and provide personalized services. However, associated with these benefits are concerns with respect to security issues. Open interconnected systems are much more vulnerable to attacks and unauthorized data access. Furthermore, it becomes simpler to collect, store, and search personal information and endanger people's privacy. In the context of this menace, Petkovic and Jonker provide a comprehensive guide to data management technologies with respect to security, privacy and trust. After the introductory part that offers a perspective on privacy and security issues in the modern digital world, the contributions from leading researchers are grouped into sections on data and system security, privacy-enhancing techniques, digital asset protection, and selected topics on privacy and security in ambient intelligence. Overall, the book delivers, from information on the ethical and legislative background, to chapters on the state-of-the-art technologies such as access control, identity management and digital rights management to advice on implementing fair information practices and preventing security and privacy violations. With this broad approach, this book appeals equally to researchers and graduate students looking for an overview of this area of ever-growing importance and to professional developers who require sound theoretical grounds for the design and implementation of secure privacy-preserving ubiquitous applications.
Abstract: To protect your most valuable resource, the company database, you need a comprehensive corporate security policy to defend against both internal and external threats. Once established, the security policy should be maintained just as the database itself is maintained – Through periodic review and revision.
Ervaringen van journalisten die grote moeite hadden om informatie van de overheid te verkrijgen, ondanks dat ze daar recht op hebben volgens de Wet openbaarheid van bestuur.
Abstract: De Eerste Kamer is onlangs met grote tegenzin akkoord gegaan met een wetsvoorstel dat voorziet in een nieuwe structuur van de Raad van State. Hoe is deze nieuwe structuur van de Raad van State en waarom was zij nodig? Twan Tak noemt de hoofdpunten, maar gaat vooral in op wat er niet geregeld wordt: de reeds in 1994 beloofde definitieve vormgeving van het hoger beroep en de rechtseenheidsvoorziening in de bestuursrechtspraak. Volgens hem lijkt de eigenlijke functie van de wet juist het (definitief) ontlopen van die belofte en het verder verankeren en verstevigen van de reeds vóór 1994 bestaande versnippering van de Nederlandse bestuursrechtspraak onder de informele leiding van de Raad van State.
Abstract: Can open source software - software that is usually available without charge and that individuals are free to modify - survive against the fierce competition of proprietary software, such as Microsoft Windows? Should the government intervene on its behalf? This work addresses a host of issues raised by the rapid growth of open source software, including government procurement policy, and patent and copyright policy. Contributors offer diverse perspectives on a phenomenon that has become a lightning rod for controversy in the field of information technology.
Abstract: For the concession of the high speed line in the Netherlands, the Dutch state preferred the same concessionaire as for the conventional lines. This thesis questions whether this preference can be economically rationalised by using the framework of path dependence. Within this framework the positive network effects and the economies of scale of the incumbent firm, the NS, and a potential entreat, the NS' contester for the high speed line are analysed. This analysis is based on railway literature, the Dutch state parliamentary proceedings and a game theoretical model. For the high speed line the Dutch states preference can be explained on the larger positive network effects the incumbent firm had over its contesters. However, insufficient economies of scale are present to justify an economic lock-in. This thesis concludes with policy recommendations to avoid future preference for one single concessionaire. These recommendations are to decrease the possibilities of both the NS and the Dutch state to influence each other policy and to increase the difference of the in-vehicle costs between both lines and decrease the waiting cost at high speed line railway stations.
Abstract: This opinion considers the arguments both for lengthy periods of copyright protection and for the abolition of copyright. De-bunking the arguments put forward by both sets of protagonists, the author re-defines the reasons for copyright duration into logical and emotional arguments, before concluding that emotion has won.
Abstract: It has been over fifteen years since the EU started harmonising copyright law. This original Handbook aims to take stock and questions what the future of EU copyright should be. What went wrong with the harmonisation acquis? What did the directives do well? Should copyright be further harmonised? Each of the 25 recognised copyright experts from different European countries gives a critical account of the EU harmonisation carried out on several aspects of copyright law (subject-matter, originality, duration, rights, and defences etc.), and asks whether further harmonisation is desirable or not.This way, the Handbook not only gives guidance to European institutions as to what remains to be done or needs to be remedied but is also the first overall picture of current and future EU copyright law. This Handbook will be of great interest to academics and intellectual property lawyers, as well general commercial lawyers, all over Europe because it reviews European directives in the field of copyright and also the relationships between copyright and other laws. Policymakers will also find much to interest them in the discussions regarding the future of EU copyright law and the proposed amendments to the existing legal framework.
Abstract: Copyright Duration is an in-depth and insightful study on an important topic that will have a direct bearing on American cultural development in the 21st century. Focusing on the ramifications of the European Union's Term Directive concerning copyright expansion, authors Robert Bard and Lewis Kurlantzick analyze the economic and political issues surrounding the expansion of copyright protection in the U.S. Copyright protection provides the legal framework for the creation and exploitation of scholarly and artistic works, but it is often inadequate for meeting the conflicting demands of producers and consumers. Bard and Kurlantzick examine how lengthening copyright protection will affect this dynamic and offer a public policy framework for analyzing copyright issues. This book is unique in that it not only addresses the question of copyright expansion, but also uses the topic as a vehicle to discuss broader issues concerning copyright protection, such as the role of international considerations and the political and analytical defects of American copyright policy-making. An indispensable resource for those working on the legal aspects of copyright protection, it will also be of great value to anyone who produces or consumes intellectual or artistic works, including computer software, music, drama, art and film.
Lawrence Lessig is bij mijn weten de grote auteur op dit gebied.
Abstract: Industry drives to get tough on copyright theft are being matched by the rapid rise of new legal instruments which encourage the remix culture. Technology of the Internet and digital technologies have enabled people technically to remix material in a way which is having dramatic impact on the way we understand and develop our culture. In response, the Creative Commons licence is launched and yet to be encouraged in the legal system as well as the social sphere.
Abstract: The reigning authority on intellectual property in the Internet age, Lawrence Lessig spotlights the newest and possibly the most harmful culture war?a war waged against those who create and consume art. America's copyright laws have ceased to perform their original, beneficial role: protecting artists' creations while allowing them to build on previous creative works. In fact, our system now criminalizes those very actions. Remix is an urgent, eloquent plea to end a war that harms every intrepid, creative user of new technologies. It also offers an inspiring vision of the postwar world where enormous opportunities await those who view art as a resource to be shared openly rather than a commodity to be hoarded.
Abstract: The Copyright Office Report on Orphan Works recognizes the severity of the problem of orphan works, but the solutions proposed create new controversies. Do orphan works comprise the majority of the record of 20th century culture?
Abstract: This book examines the social context of new digital rights management (DRM) technologies in a lively and accessible style. It sets out the scope of DRM in non-technical terms and then explores the shifts that DRM has produced within the regime of protection of intellectual property rights (IPRs). Focusing on the social norms around the protection of IPRs, it examines the music industry and software development sector to ask whether the protections established by DRM are legitimate and socially beneficial. Using these key examples to establish a more general argument, the book's central conclusion is that rather than merely re-establishing threatened rights, the development of DRM has extended the rights of intellectual property owners, and that such an extension violates previous carefully balanced political compromises as regards the maintenance of the public domain. Key Features: 1. Places DRM in its political context 2. Sets out the social impact of a new and important technology 3. Accessible and clearly written for a non-technical audience 4. Based on author's extensive research on the political economy of IPRs and information technology
Abstract: The content industries consider Digital Rights Management (DRM) to contend with unauthorized downloading of copyrighted material, a practice that costs artists and distributors massively in lost revenue. Based on two conferences that brought together high-profile specialists in this area - scientists, lawyers, academics, and business practitioners - this book presents a broad, well-balanced, and objective approach that covers the entire DRM spectrum. Reflecting the interdisciplinary nature of the field, the book is structured using three different perspectives that cover the technical, legal, and business issues. This monograph-like anthology is the first consolidated book on this young topic.
Abstract: Robin Peek discusses the current methods being used to control the use of digital content, and notes that a recent Forrester Research report predicts that neither technologies nor lawsuits will stop Internet content theft.
Abstract: In the digital realm, digital rights management (DRM) technologies are changing how information is accessed and experienced, and they are undermining fair use. American Library Association copyright expert Russell gives her take on the challenges DRM presents for end users – And librarians – And discusses efforts already underway to develop “good DRM.”
Abstract: The recent patent trolling sagas should serve as a timely reminder of the vulnerability of the patent system in a global technological age. Undesirable patent enforcement activities may be counter-innovation and cripple legitimate businesses that thrive on the efficient and smooth functioning of the economy. This article seeks to highlight the need to persevere with the quest for a patent regime that confers a degree of protection that is robust and yet not so excessive that it might stifle further innovation and entrepreneurship. It contends that there is a need to strengthen the remedies available under national patent laws to maintain a requisite degree of competition. More controversially, the author argues that a properly calibrated and sufficiently well-designed compulsory licensing scheme will not only be complementary to existing structures but will also pare down any inequalities in the bargaining positions of the stakeholders.
Abstract: Does an expansion of patent scope induce more innovative effort by firms? We examine responses to the Japanese patent reforms of 1988. Interviews with practitioners and professional documents for patent agents suggest the reforms significantly expanded the scope of patent rights. However, econometric analysis using both Japanese and U.S. patent data on 307 Japanese firms finds no evidence of an increase in either R&D spending or innovative output that could plausibly be attributed to patent reform.
Abstract: The United States patent system has become sand rather than lubricant in the wheels of American progress. Such is the premise behind this provocative and timely book by two of the nation's leading experts on patents and economic innovation.
Innovation and Its Discontents tells the story of how recent changes in patenting–an institutional process that was created to nurture innovation–have wreaked havoc on innovators, businesses, and economic productivity. Jaffe and Lerner, who have spent the past two decades studying the patent system, show how legal changes initiated in the 1980s converted the system from a stimulator of innovation to a creator of litigation and uncertainty that threatens the innovation process itself.
In one telling vignette, Jaffe and Lerner cite a patent litigation campaign brought by a a semi-conductor chip designer that claims control of an entire category of computer memory chips. The firm's claims are based on a modest 15-year old invention, whose scope and influenced were broadened by secretly manipulating an industry-wide cooperative standard-setting body.
Such cases are largely the result of two changes in the patent climate, Jaffe and Lerner contend. First, new laws have made it easier for businesses and inventors to secure patents on products of all kinds, and second, the laws have tilted the table to favor patent holders, no matter how tenuous their claims.
After analyzing the economic incentives created by the current policies, Jaffe and Lerner suggest a three-pronged solution for restoring the patent system: create incentives to motivate parties who have information about the novelty of a patent; provide multiple levels of patent review; and replace juries with judges and special masters to preside over certain aspects of infringement cases.
Well-argued and engagingly written, Innovation and Its Discontents offers a fresh approach for enhancing both the nation's creativity and its economic growth.
Abstract: The international patent system demonstrates many failures to adapt to new ways of producing information. The coming of antibiotics finally forced it to take account of the shift from “individual” to “corporate” invention by establishing new criteria for patentability. However, these favour industries which can operate a “portfolio” approach in their R&D, to the disadvantage of other industries and smaller firms in all industries. In complex technologies, whose economic importance has been growing rapidly, patents are now used as much as a bargaining currency to prevent “lock-out” from use of state-of-the-art components developed by competitors, as they are as a stimulus to R&D. Changes which have been proposed to deal with these problems, including empirical supporting evidence, are discussed. These include compulsory expert arbitration of disputes with legal aid for the respondent party in the event of an appeal to the Courts, an “Innovation Warrant” as a supplementary type of protection, and “shared-risk” compulsory licensing as a practical way of changing from time to money as the measure of a grant. This would give multiple innovators access to inventions as early as possible, while maintaining or even improving incentives to invest in invention and innovation.
Dirk Poot lijkt me bij uitstek de persoon om aan deze wetenschappelijke verankering vorm te geven.
Abstract: Access to medicine is a topic of widespread interest. However, some issues that impact such access are presently inadequately understood. In particular, international laws require most nations to provide patents on drugs, resulting in premium prices that limit access. In Access to Medicine in the Global Economy, Professor Cynthia Ho explains such laws and their impact for a diverse group of readers, from scholars and policy makers to students in a variety of disciplines.
This book explains and interprets important international agreements, beginning with the landmark Agreement on Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property (TRIPS), but also including more recent free trade agreements and the pending Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA). Professor Ho addresses controversial topics, such as when a nation can provide a compulsory license, as well as whether a nation may suspend in-transit generic goods. The book also discusses how patent-like rights (such as “data exclusivity”) prevent lower-cost generic medicines from entering into the marketplace and provides strategies for minimizing the harm of such rights. Clear explanations and diagrams, frequently asked questions, and case studies make these topics accessible to any reader. The case studies also provide a theory of patent perspectives that helps explain why access to medicine, though a universal goal, remains elusive in practice. The book aims to provide an important first step toward eventual workable solutions by promoting a better understanding of existing and future laws that impact access to medicine.
Abstract: The focus of this paper is the dynamics of product innovation in the agrochemicals industry. Innovative activity is influenced by the interaction of three main factors - the regulatory hurdles associated with registering new products; the patenting system which defines a period of exclusivity during which an innovating company can appropriate the benefits of its new product; and the competitive structure of the agrochemicals market. The possibility of generic competition - production of off-patent active ingredients (AIs) by companies without a strong research base - is a key issue. It is in the interest of research-based companies to raise their profitability by fighting generic competition through patenting strategy (including pressing for extended patent term), regulatory strategy and marketing strategy (product differentiation). However, these strategies also have profound implications for the magnitude and orientation of innovative activity. This paper describes the results of a research project which involved a series of interviews which included R&D managers, regulatory affairs managers and intellectual property managers of research based agrochemicals companies as well as generic manufacturers, formulators, trades associations and regulators. The paper assesses the problem of maintaining the innovation of safer and environmentally superior agrochemicals against a background of generic competition and the possibility of a longer-term shift to a biotechnology paradigm.
Abstract: In het eerste deel geeft Peter Marynen een voor leken bevattelijke inleiding over biotechnologie. In het tweede deel komen dan de juristen aan bod, en in het derde de ethici. Geertrui Van Overwalle geeft een overzicht van de problematiek van de octrooieerbaarheid van biotechnologische uitvindingen. Zij is van mening dat het octrooirecht moet opengesteld worden voor alle types uitvindingen mits ze voldoen aan de voorwaarden van nieuwheid, inventiviteit en industriële toepasbaarheid. De vraag of biotechnologische uitvindingen het voorwerp kunnen uitmaken van een octrooi is juridisch gezien een verkeerde vraag.
Rainer Moufang onderzoekt in welke mate het concept van `de openbare orde en de goede zeden' als clausule in de octrooiwetgeving een toegangspoort vormt voor ethische overwegingen. Uitsluiting kan slechts indien elke vorm van implementatie van de uitvinding met die clausule in strijd zou zijn. Aantonen van slechts één legitieme toepassing is voldoende om een octrooi te verkrijgen. Het octrooi beschermt echter slechts intellectueel eigendom, en houdt nog geen positief recht in tot effectieve implementatie. De samenleving kan dus in principe andere wegen bewandelen om ongewenste praktijken tegen te gaan. Dat alles betekent niet dat octrooiwetgeving ethisch neutraal zou zijn. “De morele fundering van de octrooiwetgeving is grotendeels gebaseerd op de waarden van technische vooruitgang en vrijemarkteconomie vermits haar eerste taak bestaat in de bescherming van technologische innovatie via exclusieve eigendomsrechten.” (p. 77) Het ethische debat dient dus verder opengetrokken te worden dan de mogelijke toepassing van de openbare-orde-goede-zedenclausule.
Voor Dominique Vandergheynst, die deze notie bespreekt in het voorstel van Europese richtlijn, is daarom het binnenbrengen van een ethische dimensie in het hart van de octrooiwetgeving een politieke noodzaak.
Ook Etienne Vermeersch bepleit een fundamenteel herdacht octrooisyteem, vermits het huidige “geen plaats biedt voor een rechtvaardige verdeling van de wetenschappelijke en technologische vindingen, noch voor een bewaking van de immense risico's.” (p. 106)
De algemene ethische vraagstukken rond octrooien komen echter het scherpst tot uiting in de bijdrage van Darrell Addison Posey en Graham Dutfield over octrooien op planten en traditionele kennissystemen. Inheemse volkeren en traditionele samenlevingen beschouwen “het octrooisysteem in zijn geheel, en niet slechts bepaalde klassen van octrooien, als immoreel en tegen de openbare orde.” (p. 125)
Ook de zogenaamde Plant Breeders' Rights (PBRs) delen in dit oordeel. “Niet enkel omdat monopolies tegen de morele orde van die samenlevingen zijn, maar ook omdat die legale instrumenten nooit billijk toegepast kunnen worden. De kostprijs van implementatie, toezicht en handhaving speelt onvermijdelijk in het nadeel van die groepen die politiek en economisch reeds gemarginaliseerd zijn.” (p. 129)
Verder bespreekt Johan De Tavernier de ethische implicaties van octrooien op transgene dieren. Na een overzicht van de antropocentrische en de pathocentrische visie, en een discussie van de vraag naar dierenrechten, formuleert hij een gematigde tussenpositie als referentiekader voor een ethiek omtrent transgene dieren.
Herman Nys tenslotte behandelt het gebruik van menselijk lichaamsmateriaal in biotechnologische uitvindingen en als grondstof voor de productie van een therapeutisch product. Hij gaat daarbij onder andere in op de problematiek van de zeggenschap en van de beloning. Een belangrijk ethisch debat dat lang niet afgesloten is.
Hoewel deze bundel geconcentreerd is op de problematiek van het octrooirecht biedt hij door zijn verscheidenheid, en door de algemeenheid van waaruit de meeste bijdragen vertrekken toch ook een goede introductie in de ethische problematiek van de biotechnologie in het algemeen.
Abstract: The European Patent Convention now has 31 contracting states and 5 extension states are available. In 2004, about 115,000 patent applications were filed at the European Patent Office. A large number of these applications are biotech applications. As a result, the jurisprudence involving this technology has further developed.
The European Patent Office still provides satisfactory absolute compound protection with claims of acceptable breadth in terms of enablement (as opposed to its contracting states Germany and France). The Technical Board has issued the final decision in the onco-mouse case, deliberating extensively on the ethical aspects of patenting animals. The Enlarged Board also issued two very important decisions. They deal with the admissibility of disclaimers. Finally, the European Patent Office’s jurisprudence has provided interesting decisions on inventive step that make it possible to patent human orthologues even though structural non-obviousness as a defense of inventive step is not available in the European Patent Office.
With harmonization being paramount, the United States Patent and Trademark Office and the United States federal courts continue to examine and to rule on claims directed to biotechnological inventions. Among the important United States decisions affecting biotechnology since the last edition are Merck v. Integra (defining the scope of the safe harbor); In re Fisher (applying the requirement of utility to ESTs); SmithKline Beecham v. Apotox (confirming that inherent anticipation does not require any scienter or appreciation requirement); Noelle v. Lederman (setting forth the enablement and written description requirement for antibodies); Rasmusson v. SmithKline Beecham (requiring more than just a right guess to satisfy the credible utility standard); and Phillips v. AWH (examining and clarifying rules for claim construction).
This book again attempts to provide an overview of the jurisdiction of the EPO and the USPTO and United States courts. This time, there also is a Japanese co-author who has contributed an overview over Japanese biotech patent practice. The Japanese contribution indicates that the Japanese practice is more similar to the EPO’s practice than to the US practice, although the written description requirement is now also rather restrictively applied in Japan.
Abstract: It has been commonly argued that software patents threat open source software development. This Opinion first explains the problem, then reviews different suggestions to solve it and finally argues for an approach where patent law would be developed to include exception to cover the concerns of open source developers.
Abstract: De ontwikkeling van software moetje vergelijken met het creatieve proces van het schrijven van een boek, niet met het onderzoek naar nieuwe medicijnen. Het patenteren van software is dan ook geen goed idee, betogen Johanna Boogerd en Lousewies van der laan.
Dit onderwerp blijft opvallend onbelicht vanuit de wetenschappelijke literatuur. Veel neutrale beschouwingen die merkenrecht uitleggen en praktische invulling geven, maar vrijwel geen kritische reflectie.
N.B. omdat deze thema's vaak heel specifieke standpunten bevatten is het lastig om er echt wetenschappelijke onderbouwing voor te vinden, en kom je eerder bij algemene vakbladen uit (bijvoorbeeld ComputerTotaal of PC Active). Deze kan ik vaak niet inzien en het is voor mij dus onmogelijk om deze artikelen op waarde te schatten. In principe kunnen we ze gerust gebruiken, maar garanties zijn hierover echt niet te geven.
Index on Censorship (http://ioc.sagepub.com/) is een tijdschrift wat al 40 jaar over dit onderwerp publiceert. Volume 36 (2007) Issue 4 is speciaal toegericht op censuur / vrijheid op het internet.
Abstract: Does the exponential growth of the Internet really mark a revolution in human interaction and communication, providing truly democratic access to information and ideas? Or, compounded by a growing number of competing interests now arguing for the introduction of more rigorous controls, will the full potential of the Internet fail to be recognised?
Liberating Cyberspace is the first volume to assess the impact of the Internet on our basic civil rights. Addressing the key questions, contributors from Britain and the United States examine a range of topics, from copyright and encryption to free speech, privacy and freedom of information. A series of critical case studies considers the potential of the Internet for promoting international women's rights, its the role in the McLibel trial, and to what extent the Internet can or should create new copyright and property laws of its own. Controversial and topical, Liberating Cyberspace sheds valuable new light on some of the fundamental issues of modern global communication.
Abstract: Many countries around the world block or filter Internet content, denying access to information that they deem too sensitive for ordinary citizens–most often about politics, but sometimes relating to sexuality, culture, or religion. Access Denied documents and analyzes Internet filtering practices in more than three dozen countries, offering the first rigorously conducted study of an accelerating trend. Internet filtering takes place in more than three dozen states worldwide, including many countries in Asia, the Middle East, and North Africa. Related Internet content-control mechanisms are also in place in Canada, the United States and a cluster of countries in Europe. Drawing on a just-completed survey of global Internet filtering undertaken by the OpenNet Initiative (a collaboration of the Berkman Center for Internet and Society at Harvard Law School, the Citizen Lab at the University of Toronto, the Oxford Internet Institute at Oxford University, and the University of Cambridge) and relying on work by regional experts and an extensive network of researchers, Access Denied examines the political, legal, social, and cultural contexts of Internet filtering in these states from a variety of perspectives. Chapters discuss the mechanisms and politics of Internet filtering, the strengths and limitations of the technology that powers it, the relevance of international law, ethical considerations for corporations that supply states with the tools for blocking and filtering, and the implications of Internet filtering for activist communities that increasingly rely on Internet technologies for communicating their missions. Reports on Internet content regulation in forty different countries follow, with each two-page country profile outlining the types of content blocked by category and documenting key findings.
Abstract: Freedom of speech is a vital element of American democracy, but opinions differ concerning how far it should extend. Censorship is often called for in cases of national security, military secrets, media violence, pornography, and hate speech. The authors included in this volume discuss and debate the necessity of censorship in a free society.
The purpose of this series is to trace the historical background of contemporary social issues, and to offer readers scholarly articles so that they have the information they need to form their own opinions. Censorship has four chapters: “Early American Censorship Struggles”; “Cold War-Era Censorship”; “Wartime Censorship”; and “Censorship Struggles in the Modern Cultural Arena.” Signed articles present opposing viewpoints in each chapter, ranging from articles like “Anthony Comstock Crusades to Eradicate Obscenity” and “A Lawyer Argues Against Comstock Censorship” to articles such as “The Patriot Act Violates Freedom of Speech” and “The Patriot Act Protects National Security and Civil Liberties.” Some of the selections have primary documents such as newspaper articles, speeches, and government reports, which clearly reveal how the debates have been similar throughout history. This is a valuable resource for students who are interested in this important issue.
Abstract: More than one-quarter of the planet’s population uses the Internet today, although access to it is highly uneven throughout the world. While it is widely celebrated for its emancipatory potential, many governments view the Internet with alarm and have attempted to limit access or to control its contents. This project seeks to provide a comprehensive, theoretically informed analysis of the geographies of Internet censorship. It begins by clarifying the reasons, types, extent of, and opposition to, government limitations of Internet access and contents. Invoking an index of censorship by Reporters Without Borders, it maps the severity of censorship worldwide and assesses the numbers of people affected, and using the Freedom House index, it correlates political liberty with penetration rates. Second, it explores Internet censorship at several levels of severity to explicate the multiple means through which censorship is implemented and resisted. The third part offers a moral critique of Internet censorship via a Habermasian interpretation of cyberspace as the closest real-world approximation of an ideal speech situation. The summary notes the paradox of growing e-government and continued fears of an expanded domain of public discourse.
Abstract: Afgelopen najaar kondigde de Finse regering aan dat alle Finnen vanaf juli 2010 recht hebben op toegang tot 1 Mbps-internet, dit in voorbereiding op haar doelstelling om alle Finnen in 2015 aangesloten te krijgen op 100 Mbps. Spanje en Zweden volgen een vergelijkbare strategie. Maar waarom zou een overheid haar burgers een universeel recht op internet geven? Hoe zou zij dat het beste kunnen verwezenlijken? En kunnen we zoiets ook in Nederland verwachten?
Abstract: Sinds de aanslagen van 11 september 2001 is er ook in Nederland toenemende angst voor terroristische aanslagen, met name uit de hoek van radicale islamitische groeperingen. De regering staat onder druk en heeft hier de afgelopen jaren op gereageerd met een aantal preventieve maatregelen en wetten. Sommigen menen dat de regering te ver is gegaan en dat hierdoor de burgerrechten gevaar lopen. Ook vragen zij zich af of deze maatregelen en wetten wel echt helpen. In dit boek komt een aantal deskundigen van Buro Jansen & Janssen hierover aan het woord. De nieuwe wetgeving lijkt hen overbodig en geheime AIVD-informatie (volgens de onderzoekers lang niet altijd betrouwbaar) speelt een belangrijke rol in de procesvoering. De media en politici spelen volgens hen een twijfelachtige rol: de media wakkeren met hun berichtgeving de angstgevoelens aan; de politici komen vaak zonder goede kennis van zaken tot besluitvorming.
Abstract: In the aftermath of a terrorist attack political stakes are high: legislators fear being seen as lenient or indifferent and often grant the executive broader authorities without thorough debate. The judiciary's role, too, is restricted: constitutional structure and cultural norms narrow the courts' ability to check the executive at all but the margins. The dominant 'Security or Freedom' framework for evaluating counterterrorist law thus fails to capture an important characteristic: increased executive power that shifts the balance between branches of government. This book re-calculates the cost of counterterrorist law to the United Kingdom and the United States, arguing that the damage caused is significantly greater than first appears. Donohue warns that the proliferation of biological and nuclear materials, together with willingness on the part of extremists to sacrifice themselves, may drive each country to take increasingly drastic measures with a resultant shift in the basic structure of both states.
Over het algemene internationale gedeelte heb ik vrij weinig relevante publicaties kunnen vinden. Het lijkt in grote mate overeen te komen met de publicaties over netneutraliteit en auteursrecht.
Abstract: Since the United States, the European Union, Japan, Canada, and a handful of other countries announced their participation in the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement negotiations in October 2007, the ACTA has been dogged by controversy. The negotiating process has operated largely below the public radar since its inception, yet each round of talks brings closer an agreement that could have a dramatic effect on laws worldwide.
Abstract: A few developed countries have secretly initiated and negotiated the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA). The ACTA is aimed at enhancing international copyright and trademark enforcement measures. This Article analyses the copyright dimension of ACTA, considering its various provisions and the rationale behind them. The Article does so by thoroughly examining the complex intersection of intellectual property law and criminal law. The Article then draws a few major conclusions and makes contributions to the area of copyright law: it shows how the ACTA in fact merely mimics the U.S. approach towards criminal enforcement of copyright law. Second, and more importantly, it illustrates how the ACTA initiative is therefore flawed in light of the U.S. experience to date with criminal enforcement of copyright law. Lastly, the Article makes a normative contribution by suggesting a better, education-based approach concerning criminal enforcement of copyright law.
Abstract: The ACTA was negotiated by the European Union, its member states and ten other states between 2008 and 2010. Controversial issues included the disclosure of the identity of internet users having infringed upon intellectuals property rights (IPRs), a ban on internet access in case of repeated infringements of IPRs as well as service provider liability. These issues, which touch upon every day life of numerous internet users, are highly sensitive from a human rights perspective. A fair balance must be struck between freedom of expression, privacy and the protection of IPRs. In a democracy governed by the rule of law, striking this balance is up to Parliament on the basis of a procedure which is open to public debate.In fact, the ACTA was negotiated by governmental experts meeting in confidential negotiation rounds. National Parliaments such as the German Bundestag hardly gained any influence. The European Parliament (EP), by contrast, efficiently used its additional competences under the Treaty of Lisbon in order to impose more transparency and respect for users' rights. The case study shows that the EP is an important guarantor of human rights which has to be taken seriously in any debate on democratic legitimacy in Europe.
Ik heb geen publicaties kunnen vinden die specifiek op het recht tot onderwijs ingaan voor zover dit al niet bestaat.
Abstract: Economic arguments for the adoption of ‘open source’ software in business have been widely discussed. In this paper we draw on personal experience in the UK, South Africa and Southeast Asia to forward compelling reasons why open source software should be considered as an appropriate and affordable alternative to the currently prevailing dependency on large commercial organisations and proprietary products in the field of education.
The dynamic and responsive nature of 'open source' software and the existence of freely available documentation and online communities offers an opportunity for educators, network administrators and software developers to participate in the development of resources appropriate to local needs while developing their own skills. We identify a range of critical development tools such as Perl and Linux, alongside a more specific application, Basic Support for Cooperative Work, which has great versatility for customising to fulfil specific educational needs and for the development of collaborative on-line learning communities.
Dit blijkt praktisch gewoon onmogelijk om goed op te zoeken…. als je wetenschap intypt slaat elke zoekmachine door naar publicaties over alles en nog wat. Misschien dat iemand anders meer succes heeft? Op zich kunnen we hier wel algemene publicaties over open source voor gebruiken.
Abstract: For most countries, economic development involves a process of “catching up” with leading countries at the time. This is never achieved solely by physical assets and labor alone: also needed are the accumulation of technological capabilities, educational attainment, entrepreneurship, and the development of the necessary institutional infrastructure. One element of this infrastructure is the regime of intellectual property rights (IPR), particularly patents. Patents may promote innovation and catch up, and they may foster formal technology transfer. Yet they may also prove to be barriers for developing countries that intend to acquire technologies through imitation and reverse engineering. The current move to harmonize the IPR system internationally, such as the TRIPS agreement, may thus have unexpected consequences for developing countries.
This book explores these issues through an in depth study of eleven countries ranging from early developers (the USA, Nordic Countries and Japan), and Post World War 2 countries (Korea, Taiwan, Israel) to more recent emerging economies (Argentina, Brazil, China, India and Thailand).
With contributions from international experts on innovation systems, this book will be an invaluable resource for academics and policymakers in the fields of economic development, innovation studies and intellectual property laws.
Abstract: Attempts to bring the benefits of information technology in the form of the internet to developing countries have, to date, foundered on the belief that this requires the beneficiaries to access the technology directly. As a result, the perceived huge benefits of such an enterprise have often failed to materialise. This original contribution to the debate on developing countries and IT suggests that the benefits of the internet can be passed on via an intermediary. That is, what matters is not the internet itself, rather its ability to provide information that can be made relevant and useful locally. Intermediaries are arguably more likely to provide such information and hence more likely to promote what Amartya Sen called individual 'functionings', for example the ability to be free of illness.
Jeffrey James is an impressive servant to the discipline of development studies, here he brings together previously fragmented literatures to break new ground in internet intermediation. Information Technology and Development will interest development economists and practitioners in equal amounts.
Abstract: We propose a conceptual framework to understand drivers of motivation for developers in Free/Libre Open Source Software (FL/OSS) development across geographic boundaries. We identify generic motivations (such as sharing and learning, financial and career concerns, and satisfying functional needs), and project-level preferences (such as preferences for large teams, modular and universal projects), as well as the links between the two types of preferences of FL/OSS developers in three regions — North America, China, and India. Our findings from an exploratory study indicate the presence of intrinsic motives in all three regions, with North American developers exhibiting stronger intrinsic motives such as sharing and learning. Project-level preferences differ considerably across the three samples. Finally, we observe that generic motivational factors are related to project-level preferences, although differently in the three regions. For instance, Chinese developers, who are driven by intrinsic motives, are drawn toward projects that are larger in scale, more modular, and universal in nature. In contrast, Indian developers with similar project preferences are mostly motivated by extrinsic motivations.
In de meeste gevallen zijn dit erg specifieke standpunten waar ik geen publicaties over kan vinden.
Abstract: Weg met de Buma-rechten!' Veel ondernemers vinden dit wel een sympathieke kreet. Ze hebben een broertje dood aan Buma. Een aantal weigerde dan ook om de rechten te betalen. Stuk voor stuk werden ze teruggefloten. Buma laat zich namelijk niet in de luren leggen. En daar verandert voorlopig niets aan, zo blijkt uit onze beschouwing.
Aftappen is eerder al aan bod gekomen.
Abstract: In veel steden zijn projecten aan de gang om bewoners massaal aan te sluiten op glasvezel. De Nijmeegse wijk Hazenkamp nam het heft in eigen handen, sloot eigenhandig 24 huishoudens aan op glasvezel en hoopt de rest van de wijk mee te krijgen.
Abstract: Met de introductie van de OV-chipkaart kunnen vervoerbedrijven het reisgedrag in bus, tram en trein achterhalen en koppelen aan de persoonsgegevens van de houders. Abonnementen en kortingskaarten zijn echter op naam te stellen zonder een digitaal spoor achter te laten. 'Er is geen enkele technische reden waarom de OV-chipkaart niet anoniem kan zijn.'
Abstract: Bij de introductie van de OV-chipkaart blijken nog flink wat problemen niet opgelost. Discussie over gegevensuitwisseling, tariefstelling en al dan niet reizend specificeren dreigen de voordelen van de chipkaart voor de reiziger naar de achtergrond te verdringen.
Abstract: Beveiliging chipkaart werkt niet Dankzij een Windows-tool, waarmee u de OV-chipkaart óók kunt beschrijven, is het voor iedereen een fluitje van een cent om gratis te reizen. De controleur ziet niets verdachts en de kaart blijft — tegen de belofte in — gewoon actief.
Over transparantie in de financiële sector kun je tegenwoordig een bibliotheek vullen… de beste bronnen selecteren is op korte termijn dus lastig, omdat je gewoon door de bomen het bos niet meer ziet. Ik heb geprobeerd een aantal mijn inziens goede bronnen te selecteren.
Abstract: We aim to get a better understanding of the accountability of central banks in their role of financial stability supervisors, distinguishing between three crucial elements: (1) the legal basis for the financial stability task, (2) providing of information on financial stability, and (3) the formal relationship between the accountable and the accountee. We conclude that in most OECD countries the law does not provide a clear objective for financial stability supervisors. Many central banks nowadays publish a stand-alone financial stability report. In most countries there are hardly any accountability measures in place regarding the objective of financial stability.
“Slimme” meters worden uitsluitend positief benaderd, als oplossing voor stroomdiefstal en meer inzicht voor consumenten en producenten. Hetzelfde geldt voor hernieuwbare energie patenten, deze worden eerder als maatstaf dan als probleem opgevat van innovatie op het gebied van hernieuwbare energie.
Abstract: WHAT ROLE SHOULD REAL-TIME PRICING play in a deregulated electricity market? Can it serve as an incentive to induce customers to remain loyal to their power supplier? How do customers respond to price changes carried out under RTP tariffs?
Abstract: The best minds in electricity R & D have a plan: Every node in the power network of the future will be awake, responsive, adaptive, price-smart, eco-sensitive, real-time, flexible, humming - and interconnected with everything else.
Abstract: The benefits that owners of distributed generation can derive from their assets may be far greater than suggested by their meager output compared to utility size power plants. Technology is making on-site generation more strategic and increasingly cost beneficial. And the price of employing the latest management tools can be very low.
Er bestaan tientallen case studies, vooral over Facebook, maar ook over sociale media in het algemeen. Zij lijken echter vooral op de hype in te spelen en weinig fundamenteels aan het debat toe te voegen.
Abstract: The article discusses the significance of privacy controls in protecting customer information. According to Peter Milla, former chief information officer (CIO) and chief privacy officer at Survey Sampling International LLC, the need for CIO to concentrate on technology or the belief that privacy is outside their domain is wrong. A lawsuit filed against Facebook Inc. and some of its major advertisers because of privacy breach is discussed.
Abstract: Biologist Stuart Newman of the New York Medical College in Valhalla is trying to get a patent on a “humanzee”—a chimeric animal made from human and chimpanzee embryos. Not because he really wants to create one, but because he wants to prevent other people from making one, and to challenge the rules for patenting life. Together with Jeremy Rifkin, president of the Foundation on Economic Trends in Washington, D.C. Newman is embroiled in a strange legal contest with the government that entered a new phase last week as the duo announced that—to their delight—the Patent and Trademark Office (PTO) had turned down their patent application.
Abstract: This paper considers the potential benefits and harms of DNA patenting for biomedical research and medical practice. It argues that, all things considered, the benefits of patenting DNA outweigh the harms, although societies should adopt policies designed to prevent or mitigate the harms associated with patenting. Some of these policies include: (1) reinforcing the research exemption for academic researchers, (2) raising the “bar” for the criteria of patentability, (3) restricting the scope of patents, (4) disclosing conflicts of interest related to DNA patents, (5) sharing the economic benefits of patenting with patients, and (6) providing insurance coverage for some types of genetic tests.
Abstract: Restrictive licensing practices on DNA patents are stymieing clinical access and research on genetic diagnostic testing. Diagnostic companies, university tech transfer offices and their respective associations need to pay more attention.
Abstract: The article focuses on a consultation administered by the European Commission's Health and Consumer Protection Directorate-General (DG SANCO) regarding the future of labeling legislation in Great Britain. The consultation has reflected opposing points of view from the industry and several health organizations with the government occupying the middleground. Moreover, the main focus of the debate was centered on the process of food labeling that would help consumers make informed choices.
Wederom lijkt het me dat Dirk Poot over farma patenten meer kennis van heeft dan ik ooit zal kunnen vergaren. Verstandig om dit aan hem uit te besteden.